PH1104  Mechanics

3 AU 
Fundamental concepts of mechanics.
 Fundamental quantities of nature. Systems in equilibrium, in motion with constant acceleration and nonconstant acceleration. Frames of reference and Galilean Relativity.
 Linear Motion – Newton’s three laws of motion; forces, linear momentum, impulse, work done, kinetic energy, potential energy, torque and pressure; conservation laws; collisions; systems with variable masses; rockets. Force fields  gravitation; concept of field; conservative fields; Gauss’ law; superposition.
 Rotational motion – Orbits & Kepler’s laws; angular speed and momentum; moment of inertia; rotational dynamics; parallel and perpendicular axes theorems; kinetic energy; gyroscopes.
Prerequisite: Physics and Maths at A or H2 level, or equivalents.
Not available to students who have taken or are taking PH1011, PH1012, PH1101, PH114S, PH1801, or CY1308.

PH1105  Optics, Vibrations and Waves

3 AU 
The behaviour and properties of light and matter waves.
 Geometrical Optics – reflection, refraction and dispersion; lensmaker’s equation; real and virtual images; cameras, telescope and microscope.
 Oscillations – simple harmonic motion; relative phases; pendulums; damped and driven oscillations; phasor diagrams.
 Waves and Sound – the wave equation; characteristics of waves; wave attenuation; phase, group velocity; Huygen’s principle, superposition and interference; sound waves; beats; standing waves; the Doppler effect.
 Wave Optics – electromagnetic waves; interference, diffraction; Young’s doubleslit experiment; diffraction gratings; limits of resolution; interference in thin films; scattering of light; Michelson’s interferometer; spectrometers, Xray diffraction, Bragg’s equation; polarization; the Brewster angle.
Prerequisite: Physics and Maths at A or H2 level, or equivalents.
Not available to students who have taken/are taking PH1103 or EE1002.

PH1106  Electricity and Magnetism

3 AU 
Introduction to electric and magnetic fields, and electrical circuits.
 Electric fields – Coulomb’s law, the electric field and potential; Gauss’ law; capacitors and capacitance; currents of electricity; Ohm’s Law; microscopic model of electrical conduction; Kirchoff’s laws; RC circuits.
 Magnetic fields – BiotSavart’s Law and Ampere’s law; the Lorentz force; the Hall effect; mass spectrometers; JJ Thompson’s experiment on the electron chargemass ratio; magnetic flux; Gauss’s law of magnetism; Faraday’s and Lenz’s laws; transformers; inductors and inductance.
 Electrical circuits – voltage, current and resistance; oscillations in circuits; LC circuits and relative phases; complex descriptions of current, voltage, and impedance; LCR circuits and electrical resonance; high pass and low pass filters.
 Electromagnetic Waves – properties of electromagnetic waves; the Poynting vector.
Prerequisite: Physics and Maths at A or H2 level, or equivalents.
Not available to students who have taken/are taking PH1011, PH1012, PH1102, PH1802, EE1002, PHYS1B, CY1302, or CY1306.

PH1107  Relativity and Quantum Physics

3 AU 
Fundamental concepts of special relativity, quantum physics and some basic applications.
 Special Relativity – the MichelsonMorley experiment; Einstein’s postulates; time and causality; Lorentz transformation; worldlines and spacetime diagrams; the Doppler effect; relativistic momentum and energy; mass energy equivalence.
 Quantum Physics  Planck’s postulate; the photoelectric effect; photons; Compton scattering; waveparticle duality; electron diffraction; de Broglie waves; Bohr’s atom and its limitations; Schrödinger’s equation; Born’s interpretation of wave functions; the uncertainty principle; the infinite square well; quantum tunneling; Schrödinger’s analysis of the hydrogen atom; atomic structure; electron spin; quantum numbers; Pauli’s exclusion principle; manyelectron atoms; photomultipliers; scanning electron microscopes and scanning tunneling microscopes.
 Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity – radioactive decay; binding energy; activities and halflives; fission and fusion; radiation doses.
Prerequisite: Physics and Maths at A or H2 level, or equivalents. Not available to students who have taken/are taking PH1101, PAP111, CY1307.

PH1198  Physics Laboratory Ia

2 AU 
Basic experimental physics, including topics in mechanics, basic optics and thermal physics. The laboratory sessions are designed to provide an active learning experience where key physics concepts can be better appreciated. Students will also learn about data acquisition, error analysis, error distribution, and fitting procedures.
Prerequisite: Physics at A or H2 level or equivalent.

PH1199  Physics Laboratory Ib

2 AU 
Basic experimental physics, including topics in electricity and magnetism, circuits, optics and wave phenomena. The laboratory sessions are designed to provide an active learning experience where key physics concepts can be better appreciated. Students will also learn about data acquisition, error analysis, error distribution, and fitting procedures.
Prerequisite: Physics at A or H2 level or equivalent.

PH2101  Quantum Mechanics I

3 AU 
Basic ideas of quantization in the physical world.
 Schrodinger wave equation – Born’s interpretation of wave functions; expectation values; timeindependent Schrodinger equation; required properties of eigenfunctions; energy quantization in Schrodinger theory; quantum superposition.
 Solutions of timeindependent Schrodinger equation – planewave solutions; step potential; barrier potential; quantum tunneling (with examples in radioactive alphadecay, ammonia molecule, tunnel diode, scanning tunneling microscope, etc.); square well potential; simple harmonic oscillator potential.
 Oneelectron atoms – central potentials; development of the Schrodinger equation in 3dimensions; separation of variables; eigenvalues, quantum numbers and degeneracy; eigenfunctions; probability densities; orbital angular momentum; eigenvalue equations.
 Magnetic dipole moments and spin – orbital magnetic dipole moments; the SternGerlach experiment and electron spin; spinorbit interaction; total angular momentum.

PH2102  Electromagnetism

4 AU 
Key concepts in electromagnetism.
 Electric dipole moment – polarization and displacement; multipole expansions.
 Laplace's and Poisson's equations – uniqueness theorem; method of images; electrostatic energy.
 Magnetic fields – magnetic dipole moment; magnetic field and flux; magnetic scalar and vector potentials; magnetization and magnetic media; permeability and susceptibility; properties of B and H; boundary conditions.
 Maxwell's equations; relativistic invariance; the continuity equation.
 Electromagnetic radiation – the wave equation; the electromagnetic spectrum; magnetic and electric energy densities; Poynting flux; momentum flux; radiation pressure; polarization.

PH2103  Thermal Physics

4 AU 
The laws and key concepts of thermodynamics.
 Thermodynamic equilibrium; functions of state; equations of state; perfect gases and absolute zero; the zeroth law of thermodynamics.
 The first law of thermodynamics – work, heat, and internal energy; adiabatic, reversible and irreversible changes; heat engines, efficiency, and Carnot cycles.
 Clausius' theorem and the Second law of thermodynamics.
 Fundamental equations of thermodynamics; phase changes and latent heat; enthalpy, Helmholtz free energy and Gibb's energy; Maxwell relations; the reciprocity theorem.
 The third law of thermodynamics.
 Kinetic theory – Maxwell distribution of velocities; pressure and effusion; mean free path; thermal conductivity and viscosity.
 Heat transport – conduction, radiation, and convection as transport mechanisms; heat flux and heat diffusion equation; steadystate and initialvalue problems; sinusoidally varying surface temperatures.

PH2104  Analytical Mechanics

4 AU 
Fundamental concepts of analytical mechanics.
 Newtonian Mechanics – motion with nonconstant acceleration; potential energy and conservative force; conservative forces in three dimensions; small oscillations; coupled oscillators; central forces; orbits and trajectories; scattering; collisions in center of mass coordinates.
 Rotating Systems – rotating coordinate systems; Coriolis forces and centrifugal forces; the Focault pendulum; rigid body rotation; inertia tensor, principal axes of inertia, and precession.
 Lagrangian mechanics – calculus of variations; action integral; Hamilton’s principle of least action; generalised coordinates; Hamilton’s equations; canonical transformations; Liouville’s theorem; symmetries and conservation laws.

PH2198  Physics Laboratory IIa

2 AU 
Intermediate experimental physics,
including topics in electronics, nuclear physics, semiconductor
physics, and spectroscopy. The laboratory sessions are designed
to provide an active learning experience where key physics
concepts can be better appreciated. Students will also learn
about data acquisition, error analysis, error distribution, and
fitting procedures.
Prerequisite: PH1198. 
PH2199  Physics Laboratory IIb

2 AU 
Intermediate experimental physics, including
topics in optics, spectroscopy, Xray physics, and statistical
mechanics. The laboratory sessions are designed to provide an
active learning experience where key physics concepts can be
better appreciated. Students will also learn about data
acquisition, error analysis, error distribution, and fitting
procedures.
Prerequisite: PH1199. 
PH2301  Physical Optics

3 AU 
Basic principles of physical optics.
 Properties of optical waves – refraction and dispersion; interference; the Michelson interferometer; Fraunhofer and Fresnel diffraction; the resolution limit; Fourier transformations; holography.
 Polarization; birefringence and wave plates; FabryPerot etalons; optical coatings; zone plates.
Prerequisite: PH1103 or PH1105

PH2601  Introduction to Lasers 
3 AU 
Introduction to lasers and their working principles.
 Stimulated emission of radiation – quantum transitions in atoms; stimulated emission and amplification; rate equations; saturation.
 Laser oscillation – feedback mechanisms; coherent optical oscillations; laser resonators; design principles for laser devices.
Prerequisite: PH1103 or PH1105. 
PH3101  Quantum Mechanics II

4 AU 
Framework and basic principles of quantum mechanics.
 Postulats of quantum mechanics  quantum states and operators; wavefunctions; orthogonality and completeness; degeneracies; symmetries and conservation laws; the quantumclassical correspondence.
 Angular momentum – operators, eigenvalues and eigenstates of angular momentum; parity and rotational invariance; the hydrogen atom; angular momentum quantum numbers.
 Timeindependent perturbation theory – nondegenerate eigenvalues; first and second order corrections;
degenerate perturbation theory; the variational principle.

PH3102  Condensed Matter Physics I

4 AU 
The structure of solids, and the quantum mechanical motion of atoms and electrons in a periodic solid.
 Crystal symmetry – lattice, basis, unit cell of a crystal; Miller indices; lattice planes and spacings; the reciprocal lattice and Brillouin zones; Bragg and Laue diffraction; structure factor; atomic form factor; neutron and xray diffraction; powder and single crystal diffraction.
 Sound propagation in solids – normal mode dispersion for linear atomic chains; acoustic and optical phonon modes; Born von Karman boundary conditions; density of states; lattice quantization and phonons; Einstein and Debye models of heat capacity.
 Electronic properties – free electron theory; density of states; the Fermi energy; Fermi surfaces; conductivity and heat capacity; the nearlyfree electron model; band gaps; the Bloch theorem; the KronigPenny model.
 Distinctions between metals, semiconductors and insulators; aspects of condensed matter physics.

PH3199  Physics Laboratory IIIa

2 AU 
Advanced training in experimental physics covering a wide variety of topics: quantum physics, electrodynamics, atomic physics and spectroscopy, solid state physics, fluid mechanics, semiconductor physics, photonics, biophysics and thin film growth.
Prerequisites: PH2198 and PH2199. 
PH3201  Statistical Mechanics

4 AU 
Postulates and key ideas in statistical mechanics, with applications to classical and quantum gases.
 Basic postulates of statistical mechanics – macrostates and microstates; distinguishable and indistinguishable particles; distribution functions.
 Temperature and entropy – state probabilities; the Boltzmann relation; the canonical ensemble; the partition function; Gibbs' entropy formula; the Third Law of thermodynamics; information theory; irreversible processes and the arrow of time.
 Density of states and heat capacity in black body radiation.
 Ideal classical gases – the MaxwellBoltzmann distribution; rotational and vibrational heat.
 Free electron gases – the Fermi energy and distribution function; Pauli paramagnetism; electronic contributions to heat capacity.
 Phonons – phonon contributions to heat capacity; the Debye approximation; the phonon gas; thermal conductivity of insulators.
 Phase transitions – the Weiss model of ferromagnetism; orderdisorder transitions.

PH3399  Physics Laboratory IIIb

2 AU 
Advanced training in experimental physics covering a wide variety of topics: Quantum physics, electrodynamics, atomic physics and spectroscopy, solid state physics, fluid mechanics, semiconductor physics, photonics, biophysics and thin film growth.
Prerequisite: PH2198 and PH2199. 
PH3401  Atomic Physics

4 AU 
Atomic spectra, and the application of quantum mechanics to electronnucleus interactions in atoms.
 The hydrogen atom – central potential approximation; radial wavefunctions; quantum numbers; energy levels and degeneracy; electron spin and total angular momentum; spinorbit coupling and fine structure; Zeeman splitting.
 Helium atom – Coulomb repulsion and exchange; singlettriplet splitting.
 Electronic configuration and the periodic table – alkali metals; residual electrostatic interaction; LScoupling scheme; Hund's rules; hyperfine structure and isotope shift.
 Spectroscopy – selection rules for electric dipole interaction; Zeeman and Stark effects; inner shell transitions and xray spectra; modern atomic physics experiments.

PH3403  Cosmology

3 AU 
Fundamental aspects of standard cosmology.
 Big bang theory – structure formation; big bang nucleosynthesis; matter production; cosmic microwave background; inflation.
 Aspects of geometry in the universe – RobertsonWalker metrics; Friedmann equations.
 Open problems in cosmology – dark matter; dark energy; primordial gravitational waves.
Prerequisites: PH1107, PH2101, and PH2103.

PH3404  Physics of Classical and Quantum Information

3 AU 
Relationships between physics, information theory and computer science.
 Computation and its physical consequences – Turing machines; the physical ChurchTuring thesis; the halting problem; computational complexity; emergence.
 Introduction to information theory – quantifying information; Shannon entropy; correlations and mutual information.
 Thermodynamics of information – Maxwell's demons; Szilard Engines; Landaur's erasure; energetic limits of computation.
 Quantum Information – quantum bits; quantum gates; quantum nonlocality; quantum entanglement.
 Quantum technologies – sampling of iconic quantum technologies like quantum bomb detection and quantum teleportation.

PH3405  Superconductivity, Superfluidity and BoseEinstein Condensates

3 AU 
Macroscopic quantum phenomena: superconductivity, superfluidity, and BoseEinstein condensates.
 Superconductivity – Drude theory of conduction in normal metals; superconductor properties; the Meissner effect; perfect diamagnetism; type I and type II superconductors; the London equation; GinzburgLandau theory; the superconducting phase transition; gauge symmetries and spontaneous symmetry breaking; the Abrikosov flux lattice; macroscopic coherent states; field operators; offdiagonal longrange order; the Josephson effect and its application in the Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID); introduction to the BCS theory.
 Superfluids – superfluid helium4; macroscopic wave functions, flow quantization; rotating superfluids and vortices; phonon and roton excitations; the TiszaLandau twofluid model; superfluid helium3; unconventional superconductivity.
 BoseEinstein condensation (BEC) – BoseEinstein statistics; BEC in ultracold atomic gases; the GrossPitaevskii equation.

PH3501  Fluid Mechanics

4 AU 
The laws governing the motion of fluids.
 Equations of flow – Pascal's theorem; the Bernoulli equation; Euler's equation; the NavierStokes equation; vorticity and divergence.
 Compressible and incompressible fluids – flow around objects; potential flow; viscosity, Reynolds number; laminar flow and turbulence; Kolmogorov scaling.
 Dynamical phenomena – sound waves; shock fronts; RankineHugoniot relations; shallowwater equations; surface waves; conservation of potential vorticity.

PH3502  Chaotic Dynamical Systems

4 AU 
Modelling determinism and randomness in the physical world.
 Phase planes and critical points; free and damped oscillators; preypredator models; extensions to threedimensional phase space and beyond, e.g. rotation of rigid bodis and the Lorenz system.
 Integrable and nonintegrable systems; Poincaré return maps.
 Discrete dynamics – 1D and 2D maps; fixed points and stability; period doubling; shift map and logistic map.
 Chaos theory – sensitivity to initial conditions (the butterfly effect); Lyapunov exponents; limits to predictability; strange attractors and fractal dimensions; the Kepler problem.
 Stable and unstable manifolds – homoclinic and heteroclinic tangle; lobes and turnstile transport; particle motion in 2D incompressible fluids.

PH3601  Fabrication of Micro and Nanoelectronic Devices

4 AU 
Principles and techniques for fabricating micro and nanoelectronic devices.
 Semiconductorbased device fabrication – ion implantation; diffusion and oxidation processes; epitaxy; thin film deposition; material and device characterization; lithography; etching and cleaning.
 Magnetic, organic and bioMEMS devices – fabrication and characterization techniques.

PH3602  Photonics

4 AU 
Key concepts in optical and optoelectronic technologies.
 Waveguide optics – optical fibres; crystal optics.
 Light sources and detectors – optoelectronic interactions in semiconductors; photovoltaic devices; liquid crystal optics; flat panel displays.
Prerequisites: PH2101 and PH2301. 
PH3603  Biophysics

3 AU 
Biophysics and physical models of biological systems.
 Introduction to biophysics – working principles of common biophysical models; chemical bonds; structure and dynamics of biomolecules.
 Structure calculations and computer simulations.
 Thermodynamics and kinetics of molecular interactions.
 Singlemolecule biophysics.
 Physics and medicine.

PH4401  Quantum Mechanics III

4 AU 
Advanced topics in quantum mechanics.
 Scattering theory – formulation of scattering experiments; Born approximations; Green's function methods; bound and free states; resonances; Fermi's golden rule.
 Manybody quantum mechanics – quantum postulates for manybody systems; quantum entanglement; the EinsteinPodolskyRosen paradox and Bell's inequalities; the manyworlds interpretation of quantum mechanics.
 Identical particles – exchange symmetry; bosons and fermions; creation and annihilation operators, and second quantization; coherent states; the Pauli exclusion principle; quantum field theories.
 Quantum electrodynamics – the electromagnetic Hamiltonian; gauge symmetry and the AharanovBohm effect; Dirac's equation; quantization of the electromagnetic field; photons; electromagnetic radiation; electromagnetic shifts of electronic energy levels.

PH4402  Condensed Matter Physics II

4 AU 
Advanced concepts in solid state physics.
 Basic theories and models for condensedmatter physics – approaches to the manybody problem; collective phenomena.
 Structure and bonding  order and disorder; types of bonding and structure; electrons in periodic potentials; the Bloch theorem; tightbinding models; 1D chain models; band structures of real materials; optical transitions and photoemission.
 Interactions – effective medium approximations for electronelectron interactions; HartreeFock theory; exchange and correlation energy; electron fluids and electrostatic screening; the exclusion principle and quasiparticles.
 Transport and scattering – crystal momentum; neutron scattering; electronphonon scattering; optical conductivity; Drude theory, plasmons; transport in electric and magnetic fields; quantization of orbits, cyclotron resonance; the de Haasvan Alphen effect; Fermi surfaces; magnetoresistance oscillation; the quantum Hall effect.
 Semiconductors – thermal equilibrium of quasiparticles; field effect transistor; pn junctions, LED; excitons; semiconductor heterostrutures; quantum wells; semiconductor lasers.
 Magnetism – origin of magnetic moments and interactions; ferromagnetism; itinerant magnetism; the Stoner model; strongly interacting systems; Mott insulators.

PH4403  Surfaces and Interfaces

4 AU 
Key concepts in surface and interface science, with a focus on electronic structures.
 Thermodynamics of surface phenomena – electronic structures; phase transitions; elementary excitations; physisorption and chemisorption; energy transfer.
 Schottky barrier and band offsets in semiconductors; band engineering.
 Analytical techniques – scanning tunneling microscopy; electron diffraction methods; photoemission; ballistic electron emission microscopy.

PH4404  Nanoscale Physics

3 AU 
Physical and transport properties in nanoscale systems.
 Electron gases in 2D and multilayer systems.
 Quantum transport in 1D – magnetotunneling; quantum capacitance; quantum conductance.
 Quantum dots and artificial atoms – eigenenergies and eigenstates; single particle conductance; Coulomb blockade; Kondo effect; the AharanovBohm effect.

PH4408  Nuclear Physics

3AU 
The structure of nuclei and their properties.
 Properties of nuclei – nuclear radii, masses, and abundances; binding energies; spins and electromagnetic moments.
 Nuclear structure – deuterons; nucleonnucleon scattering and exchange forces; the semiempirical mass formula; the Fermi gas model; the shell model; liquid drop models with vibrational and rotational excitations; collective structure.
 Selection rules for alpha, beta and gamma decay processes.
 Nuclear lifetimes; applications of nuclear physics including fusion and fission processes.
 Nuclear reactors and nuclear power – neutron difussion and moderation; radiation protection and radiation shielding; safety and the environment.

PH4409  Quantum Electronics

4 AU 
Advanced topics in photonics and optical technology.
 Classical linear and nonlinear optics; statistical optics.
 Quantum optics – physics of photoncs; semiclassical and quantum models of lightmatter interaction; lasers; generation of short laser pulses.
Prerequisites: PH3101 and PH3602. 
PH4410  Econophysics

3AU 
Approaches to economics and finance inspired by statistical physics.
 Introductory concepts – basic concepts in probability and statistics; low and highfrequency data in economics and finance; Gaussian and fattailed return distributions.
 Time series – autocorrelations, memory, and nonstationarity; cross correlations in financial markets; time series clustering.
 Random matrix theory.
 Correlation filtering and minimal spanning trees.
 Agentbased models of financial markets.
Prerequisite: PH3201 or MH2500.

PH4411  Introduction to Experimental Particle Physics

3 AU 
Survey of particle physics for advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students.
 Common models of nuclear and high energy particle physics – the Standard Model of quarks, leptons and the fundamental interactions; tests of conservation laws; indications of physics beyond the Standard Model.
 Experimental techniques in particle physics – operating principles of particle accelerators and particle detectors; accelerators; transverse and longitudinal beam dynamics; RF and plasma acceleration; electron dynamics and synchrotron radiation; detector types, including sensitivity, response, energy/space/time resolution, efficiency and dead time; covering devices for position and momentum measurements; particle identification systems; calorimeters and multipurpose systems.
 Current and future experimental challenges – data volume and computing problems; online collision selection; data analysis.
Prerequisite: division approval 
PH4414  Introduction to Spintronics

3 AU 
Magnetic and spintronic technologies, and their uses in hard disk drives and magnetic random access memory.
 Fundamentals of magnetism – origins of magnetism; exchange interactions; types of magnetic materials and their properties; origins of magnetic hysteresis.
 Magnetic recording – components of magnetic recording media; recent developments.
 Magnetic random access memory – magnetoresistance; giant magnetoresistance; tunneling magnetoresistance; MRAM devices; emerging concepts in MRAM.
Prerequisites: PH2102 and PH3102 or equivalent. 

4 AU 
Survey course in applications of physics in various industries, including the electronics industry; the optics industry; the materials industry; the biomedial industry; and the financial industry.
Prerequisites: PH3101 and PH3102. 
PH4501  Statistical Mechanics II

4 AU 
Advanced statistical mechanics and its applications to complex physical systems.
 Thermodynamic systems in equilibrium – Boltzmann and Gibbs entropy; configurational entropy and defects; mcrocanonical, canonical and grand canonical ensembles; paramagnetic salts; negative temperatures; fluctuations in energy, particle number and volume; critical opalescence.
 Classical and quantum models – indistinguishability; the equipartition theorem; the grand partition function; FermiDirac and BoseEinstein statistics; the quantum to classical crossover; chemical equilibrium and Langmuir isotherms.
 Quantum fluids – the Ideal Bose gas and BoseEinstein condensation; quantum liquids; blackbody radiation; phonons and the Debye model; ideal Fermi gases; normal modes and elementary excitations of quantum fluids.
 Classical liquids – radial distribution function; internal energy and equation of state; virial expansion.

PH4502  Atmospheric Physics

4 AU 
The atmosphere as a fluid system, and the physics underlying weather and the climate.
 Basic properties of the atmosphere – temperature structure; potential temperature; entropy models; hydrostatic balance and geopotential; pressure coordinates.
 Radiative balance of the Earth – radiative transfer; ozonelayer; the greenhouse effect.
 Fluid dynamics on the planet surface – geostrophic flow; cyclones and anticyclones; thermalwind balance; Hadley circulation; global wind circulation; static stability and the BruntVassala frequency; gravity waves; Rossby waves.
 Thermal convection; adiabatic lapse rate; moist adiabat; radiativeconvective equilibrium.
 The Antarctic ozone hole; global warming and climate change.

PH4505  Computational Physics

4 AU 
Computational methods for solving physical problems, with an emphasis on practical programming using Scientific Python.
 Data structures for scientific programming – arrays; runtime and memory scaling analysis; numerical linear algebra; numerical eigenvalue problem solvers.
 Monte Carlo method for statistical mechanics simulation. Optimization and data analysis.
 Discretization schemes – finitedifference methods; sparse matrices; numerical integration; discrete Fourier transforms.
 Monte Carlo methods – Markov chains; the Markov chain Monte Carlo method for statistical modeling.

PH4506  Electrodynamics

4 AU 
Advanced topics in electromagnetism.
 Electromagnetism and special relativity.
 Emission of electromagnetic radiation by electric charges.
 The scattering of charged particles by the electromagnetic field.

PH4507  Topics in Physics

3 AU 
Survey course in research topics at the frontiers of theoretical physics. The topics vary from semester to semester, and are chosen from the fields of condensed matter physics, nanotechnology, general relativity, elementary particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology, etc.
Prerequisite: division approval.

PH4508  Introduction to General Relativity

3 AU 
Introduction to the geometric theory of gravitation.
 Principles of general relativity – the equivalence principle; spacetime effects of gravitation; gravitational redshifts; the curvature of spacetime; the geodesic equation.
 Einstein's equations and their solutions – the Schwarzschild geometry for a spherical star; equation of orbit; experimental tests of general relativity; introduction to black hole physics.
Prerequisite: MH2801, PH2102, and PH2104.

PH4509  Quantum Field Theory with applications in Condensed Matter Physics

4 AU 
Introduction to quantum field theory (QFT).
 Basic concepts of QFT – mathematical techniques; the pathintegral formalism of quantum mechanics; canonical quantization, Green's functions; Feynman diagrams and perturbation theory.
 Applications of QFT in particle physics and manybody condensed matter physics – quantum electrodynamics; the fractional quantum hall effect; meanfield theories of superfluids; renormalization group methods; the LandauGinzburg theory of critical phenomena.

PH4601  Physics of Semiconductor and Spintronics Devices

4 AU 
Introduction to solid state devices, with an emphasis on the modern microelectronics industry.
 Semiconductor physics – electronic band structures of semiconductors; electronic properties of defects; charge carrier concentrations; drift of carriers in electric and magnetic fields; diffusion and recombination of excess carriers; pn junction physics; junction diodes; tunnel diodes; bipolar junction transistors; metalsemiconductor contacts; metalinsulatorsemiconductor interfaces; MOSFET and advanced FinFET.
 Magnetic materials and devices – origins of magnetism; ferromagnetism; magnetisationreversal processes; magnetic domain walls; soft and hard magnetic materials; giant magnetoresistance; tunnelling magnetoresistance; magnetic random access memory (MRAM); magnetic recording media.

PH4603  Soft Condensed Matter Physics

3 AU 
Introduction to the physics of soft matter, such as colloids, foams, granular media, and liquid crystals.
 Basic principles – atomic and molecular forces; hardcore repulsion; physics of polymers.
 Physics of nonideal fluids – diffusion; electrostatics in solution; PoissonBoltzmann theory; electrophoresis; liquid interfaces and droplets.
 Physics of complex matter – lipid bilayers and vesicles; membrane fluctuations, cell mechanics; colloids; liquid crystal phases; aggregates; viscoelasticity.
 Experimental methods – dynamic light scattering; selfassembling processes; fluorescence correlation spectroscopy; laser tweezers; tracking experiments.

PH4604  Topics in Applied Physics

3 AU 
Survey course in research topics at the frontiers of applied physics. The topics vary from semester to semester, and are chosen from the fields of materials physics, spintronics, photonics, organic devices, nanotechnology, superconducting devices, etc.
Prerequisite: division approval.

PH4605  Medical Physics for Radiotherapy

4 AU 
Fundamentals of radiation physics, with a focus on clinical applications.
 Dosimetry – basic concepts and techniques; dose calculation methods; treatment planning.
 Radiobiology and radiotherapy; radiation safety.

PH4606  Fundamentals and Applications of Acoustics

3 AU 
Introduction to acoustics, with a focus on audible and ultrasonic sound propagation in fluids, as well as ultrasonic applications for medical diagnosis and treatment.
 Introduction to acoustics – the wave equation; reflection processes; equivalent network modes; pistons; the Rayleigh integral.
 Solutions to the wave equation – sound speed profiles; 2D parabolic wave equation; underwater acoustic modelling; sound propagation in the ocean.
 Sonar equations – reflection, scattering, and backscattering processes; sonar systems and their applications in target detection and ranging.
 Bioacoustics – sound generation and sound perception in human beings; frequency resolution of the cochlea; sound propagation; transmission losses; sound exposure levels and impacts on marine environments; technological applications.
 Medical ultrasound – introduction to diagnostic ultrasound; sound emission from bubbles; therapeutic ultrasound.
Prerequisites: PH1104, PH1105, and MH2801. 
PH4607/CM4017  Biomedical Imaging and Sensing

3 AU 
Medical imaging and biosensing techniques, with special emphasis on the underlying physical principles.
 Photonicsbased biosensors and their applications.
 Medical imaging techniques – instrumentation; applications for disease diagnosis and drug discovery; comparative analysis of different biomedical imaging and sesing techniques.
Prerequisite: PH2301 or CM3041. 
PH4608  Plasmonics and Metamaterials

3 AU 
Introduction to plasmonic waves in metallic materials, and metamaterials (artificial materials with novel electromagnetic properties).
 Physics of surface plasmon polaritons – conductive properties of metals; plasmonic dispersion relations; coupling light waves to plasmons.
 Metamaterials – basic metamaterial designs; active metamaterials; bright and dark resonances in metamaterials; nearfield couplings and slow light; superconducting metamaterials; Fano resonances; toroidal dipole resonances; microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) for active metamaterials.
Prerequisite: PH2102. 
PH4405  Final Year Project (for students admitted in 2015 or earlier) 
10 AU 
Twosemester research project, supervised by a faculty member, culminating in a thesis report and a seminar presentation.
Prerequisite: 12 AUs of PH3XXX courses.
Not available to students admitted in AY16/17 or later. 
PH4406  Industrial Internship I (for students admitted in 2014 or earlier) 
4 AU 
Prerequisites: PH1104, PH1105, PH1106, PH1107, PH1198, PH1199, PH2101, PH2102, PH2103, PH2104, PH2198, and PH2199; or by permission.
Not available to students who have taken/are taking other internship courses (PH4407 or PH4412 or PH4413).

PH4407 Industrial Internship II (for students admitted in 2014 or earlier) 
10 AU 
Twentytwo week industrial placement (internship) in an approved company or institution. Click here for more information.Prerequisites: PH1104, PH1105, PH1106, PH1107, PH1198, PH1199, PH2101, PH2102, PH2103, PH2104, PH2198, PH2199, PH3101, and PH3102; or by permission.
Not available to students who have taken/are taking other internship course (PH4406 or PH4412 or PH4413); also not available to students admitted in AY06/07 or later. 
PH4412  Professional Attachment (for students admitted in 2015) 
4 AU 
Tenweek attachment in an approved company or institution. This is a pass/fail course. Click here for more information.Prerequisites: PH1104, PH1105, PH1106, PH1107, PH1198, PH1199, PH2101, PH2102, PH2103, PH2104, PH2198, and PH2199; or by permission.
Not available to students who have taken/are taking other internship courses (PH4406, PH4407, PH4413, PH4416, or PH4417); also not available to students admitted in AY06/07 or later. 
PH4413  Professional Internship (for students admitted in 2015) 
10 AU 
Twentytwo week internship in an approved company or institution. This is a pass/fail course. Click here for more information.Prerequisites: PH1104, PH1105, PH1106, PH1107, PH1198, PH1199, PH2101, PH2102, PH2103, PH2104, PH2198, PH2199, PH3101, and PH3102; or by permission.
Not available to students who have taken/are taking other internship courses (PH4406, PH4407, PH4412, PH4416, or PH4417) or PH4415; also not available to students admitted in AY16/17 or later.

PH4415  Final Year Project (for students admitted in 2016 and after) 
11 AU 
Twosemester research project, supervised by a faculty member, culminating in a thesis report and a seminar presentation.
Not available to students who have taken/are taking the 22week industrial/professional internship courses (PH4407, PH4413, or PH4417), or PH4405. 
PH4416 Professional Attachment (for students admitted in 2016 and after) 
5 AU 
Tenweek attachment in an approved company or institution. This is a pass/fail course. Click here for more information.Prerequisites: PH1104, PH1105, PH1106, PH1107, PH1198, PH1199, PH2101, PH2102, PH2103, PH2104, PH2198, and PH2199; or by permission.

PH4417  Professional Internship (for students admitted in 2016 and after) 
11 AU 
Twentytwo week internship in an approved company or institution. This is a pass/fail course. Click here fore more information.Prerequisites: PH1104, PH1105, PH1106, PH1107, PH1198, PH1199, PH2101, PH2102, PH2103, PH2104, PH2198, PH2199, PH3101, and PH3102; or by permission.
