PH1104 Mechanics
3 AU  Semester 1 
This course aims to equip you with the basic concepts and problem solving skills in Mechanics. You will develop physical intuition and analytical skills which are important for studying physical systems and solve problems involving mechanical systems. These knowledge and skills lay the foundation for subsequent higher level courses
Prerequisite: Physics and Maths at A or H2 level, or equivalents.
Not available to students who have taken or are taking PH1011, PH1012, PH1801, or CY1308.

PH1105 Optics, Vibrations and Waves
3 AU  Semester 1 
This course aims to equip
you with basic concepts and problem solving skills in optics and wave phenomena. You will develop physical intuition and basic analytical skills
which are important for studying optical rays and wave propagation. Fundamental concepts are emphasized using
the framework of phase and wavefronts. These knowledge and skills lay the foundation for subsequent
higher level courses in optics, and are also critical in any other waverelated courses such as quantum
mechanics and electrodynamics.
Prerequisite: Physics and Maths at A or H2 level, or equivalents.
Not available to students who have taken/are taking EE1002.

PH1106 Electricity and Magnetism
3 AU  Semester 2 
The course aims to guide
you towards a basic understanding of the key ideas within fields and
oscillations through the various concepts in electrostatics, magnetism, simple harmonic
motion and electric circuits. Through problem solving, you would develop the physical intuition and
analytical skills useful in these Physics topics. You would also learn to apply these theoretical concepts in
real world situations.
Prerequisite: Physics and Maths at A or H2 level, or equivalents.
Not available to students who have taken/are taking PH1011, PH1012, PH1802, EE1002, PHYS1B, CY1302, or CY1306.

PH1107 Relativity and Quantum Physics
3 AU  Semester 2 
This course aims to equip
you with the basic concepts and problem solving skills for analysing objects moving close to the speed of light and particles exhibiting quantum
behaviour. You will develop physical insights and analytical skills which are important for
studying relativistic problems and quantum systems. These knowledge and skills lay the foundation for subsequent
higher level courses.
Prerequisite: Physics and Maths at A or H2 level, or equivalents.
Not available to students who have taken/are taking CY1307.

PH1198 Physics Laboratory Ia
2 AU  Semester 1 
Basic experimental physics, including topics in mechanics, basic optics and thermal physics. The laboratory sessions are designed to provide an active learning experience where key physics concepts can be better appreciated. Students will also learn about data acquisition, error analysis, error distribution, and fitting procedures.
Prerequisite: Physics at A or H2 level or equivalent.

PH1199 Physics Laboratory Ib
2 AU  Semester 2 
Basic experimental physics, including topics in electricity and magnetism, circuits, optics and wave phenomena. The laboratory sessions are designed to provide an active learning experience where key physics concepts can be better appreciated. Students will also learn about data acquisition, error analysis, error distribution, and fitting procedures.
Prerequisite: Physics at A or H2 level or equivalent.

PH2101 Quantum Mechanics I
3 AU  Semester 2 
The overarching aim of the
course is to enable you to predict outcomes of simple quantum experiments and to provide working knowledge necessary for more advanced topics in quantum
physics. We will gradually develop formalism of quantum mechanics in terms of matrices and wave
functions. Many experiments fundamental to physics will be discussed on the way as well as
reallife applications.
Prerequisites: (MH1801 and PH1107) OR (MH1801 and CY1307) OR (MH1802 and MH1803 and PH1107) OR (CY1307 and CY1601 and CY1602) OR (MH1101and MH1200 and PH1107).
Not available to students who have taken/are taking CY1303.

PH2102 Electromagnetism
4 AU  Semester 2 
By the end of the course,
the students will be able to understand the fundamental principles of electromagnetism. Through tutorials, students will learn the relevant
analytical, computational and mathematical skills such as partial differential equations and the physical
concepts behind the equations/solutions. These skills and concepts are the essential for the
advanced courses such as electrodynamics and fluid mechanics.
Prerequisites: (MH1801 and MH2800 and PH1106) OR (MH1802 and MH1803 and MH2802 and PH1106) OR (CY1601 and CY1602 and CY1308) OR (MH1101and MH1200 and PH1106). 
PH2103 Thermal Physics
4 AU  Semester 1 
The course
aims to equip you with the basic concepts in Thermal Physics. You will develop physical
intuition and analytical skills which are important for studying physical
systems and solve problems involving temperature, heat and energy. These
knowledge and skills are at the basis of subsequent higherlevel courses and
are critical in the engineering profession.
Prerequisites: (MH2800 and PH1104) OR (MH1803 and MH2802 and PH1104) OR (CY1601 and CY1602 and CY1308) OR (MH1101and MH1200).

PH2104 Analytical Mechanics
4 AU  Semester 1 
This course aims to equip
you with the basic concepts and problem solving skills in Analytical Mechanics. You will develop physical intuition and analytical skills which are important
for studying physical systems and solve problems involving mechanical systems. This knowledge and skills lay
the foundation for other physics courses such as quantum mechanics and photonics.
Prerequisites: (MH2800 and PH1104) OR (MH1803 and MH2802 and PH1104) OR (CY1601 and CY1602 and CY1308)
Not available to students who have taken/are taking MA1001.

PH2198 Physics Laboratory IIa
2 AU  Semester 1 
This course aims to:
a. build understanding of
experimentation in key topics of physics.
b. provide foundation knowledge
for experimental physics
c.
begin building observational skills of physical phenomena.
d.
show how experiments further knowledge in physics.
Prerequisite: PH1198 or CY1400.

PH2199 Physics Laboratory IIb
2 AU  Semester 2 
This course aims to:
a. build understanding of experimentation in key topics of physics.
b. provide foundation knowledge for experimental physics
c. begin building observational skills of physical phenomena.
d. show how experiments further knowledge in physics.
Prerequisite: PH1199 or CY1400. 
PH2301 Physical Optics
3 AU  Semester 2 
This course aims to equip
you with the basic concepts and problem solving skills in physical optics and electromagnetic wave phenomena. You will develop physical intuition and
analytical skills which are important for studying the detailed nature and propagation of light wave, its
polarization, interference and diffraction properties. You will solve problems based on electromagnetic theory
of light, superposition of light waves, polarization, interference and diffraction. These knowledge and
skills lay the foundation for subsequent higher level courses in photonics and applied physics which would
also be very useful in the engineering and design profession.
Prerequisite: PH1105

PH2601 Introduction to Lasers
3 AU  Semester 2 
Introduction to lasers and their working principles.
 Stimulated emission of radiation – quantum transitions in atoms; stimulated emission and amplification; rate equations; saturation.
 Laser oscillation – feedback mechanisms; coherent optical oscillations; laser resonators; design principles for laser devices.
Prerequisite: PH1105.

PH3101 Quantum Mechanics II
4 AU  Semester 1 
Most introductory courses
or books in QM start off with special systems (for example infinite square
well) and derive its wave function in position representation from the Schrodinger’s
equation. Although this approach may be intuitive due to its physical setup, it tends to give the wrong
impression that wave functions are fundamental objects in QM. In actual fact, wave functions are just the
different representations of the state (ket in Dirac notation) of the system. One can always choose other
representations or even not choose a representation.
This course aims to unteach wave mechanics and free you of particular representations and work with the formalism directly. You will explore the logical development of Quantum
Mechanics (QM) formalism and develop QM systematically from finite to infinite dimensions in three parts.
Part 1 aims to give a complete and systematic rundown of basic quantum
kinematics and quantum dynamics so that you have a working understanding of quantum mechanics for
finitedimensional and infinite dimensional systems. The concept of measurement will also be covered.
This provides probabilistic results for experiments.
Part 2 aims to discuss symmetry within QM. Rotational symmetry (angular
momentum is the generator of rotations) is the main and very important example. The rotational symmetry in
Hydrogenic atoms will also be discussed, which will also introduce you to 3D QM.
Part 3 adds on to the formalism for systems that cannot be solved exactly.
These are reallife QM examples and the standard method to solve these systems is via perturbation for
timeindependent/dependent and nondegenerate/degenerate systems.
Prerequisites: PH2101 and MH2801.

PH3102 Condensed Matter Physics I
4 AU  Semester 1 
The structure of solids, and the quantum mechanical motion of atoms and electrons in a periodic solid.
 Crystal symmetry – lattice, basis, unit cell of a crystal; Miller indices; lattice planes and spacings; the reciprocal lattice and Brillouin zones; Bragg and Laue diffraction; structure factor; atomic form factor; neutron and xray diffraction; powder and single crystal diffraction.
 Sound propagation in solids – normal mode dispersion for linear atomic chains; acoustic and optical phonon modes; Born von Karman boundary conditions; density of states; lattice quantization and phonons; Einstein and Debye models of heat capacity.
 Electronic properties – free electron theory; density of states; the Fermi energy; Fermi surfaces; conductivity and heat capacity; the nearlyfree electron model; band gaps; the Bloch theorem; the KronigPenny model.
 Distinctions between metals, semiconductors and insulators; aspects of condensed matter physics.
Prerequisites: PH1105, PH2101, and PH2103.

PH3199 Physics Laboratory IIIa
2 AU  Semester 1 & 2 
Advanced training in experimental physics covering a wide variety of topics: quantum physics, electrodynamics, atomic physics and spectroscopy, solid state physics, fluid mechanics, semiconductor physics, photonics, biophysics and thin film growth.
Prerequisites: PH2198 and PH2199.

PH3201 Statistical Mechanics
4 AU  Semester 2 
Postulates and key ideas in statistical mechanics, with applications to classical and quantum gases.
 Basic postulates of statistical mechanics – macrostates and microstates; distinguishable and indistinguishable particles; distribution functions.
 Temperature and entropy – state probabilities; the Boltzmann relation; the canonical ensemble; the partition function; Gibbs' entropy formula; the Third Law of thermodynamics; information theory; irreversible processes and the arrow of time.
 Density of states and heat capacity in black body radiation.
 Ideal classical gases – the MaxwellBoltzmann distribution; rotational and vibrational heat.
 Free electron gases – the Fermi energy and distribution function; Pauli paramagnetism; electronic contributions to heat capacity.
 Phonons – phonon contributions to heat capacity; the Debye approximation; the phonon gas; thermal conductivity of insulators.
 Phase transitions – the Weiss model of ferromagnetism; orderdisorder transitions.
Prerequisite: PH3101.

PH3399 Physics Laboratory IIIb
2 AU  Semester 1 & 2 
Advanced training in experimental physics covering a wide variety of topics: Quantum physics, electrodynamics, atomic physics and spectroscopy, solid state physics, fluid mechanics, semiconductor physics, photonics, biophysics and thin film growth.
Prerequisite: PH2198 and PH2199.

PH3401 Atomic Physics
4 AU  Semester 2 
Atomic physics is
fundamentally important in physics. It is a direct application of the quantum mechanical framework. It extends the understanding quantum mechanics and
underlines its importance. Atomic physics introduces the fundamental concepts which are also
applicable in condensed matter / nuclear / molecular physics.
Prerequisite: PH3101.

PH3403 Cosmology
3 AU  Semester 1 
This is a first course in cosmology which covers various fundamental aspects of standard cosmology and background tools to understand some active research topics in this area. The topics to be covered include inflation theory, structure formation, cosmic microwave background and gravitational waves. We will also discuss some aspects of geometry of the universe including the RobertsonWalker metrics and Friedmann equations. The course will conclude via touching on currently open problems in cosmology such as dark matter, dark energy and primordial gravitational waves.
Prerequisites: PH1107, PH2101, and PH2103.

PH3404 Physics of Classical and Quantum Information
3 AU  Semester 1 
This interdisciplinary
course aims to arm you with the knowledge required to appreciate rapidly growing crossdisciplinary research frontiers that interface physics,
information science and computation. You will be introduced to the fundamentals of classical and
quantum information science and their underlying physical principles, which will give you the
necessary expertise to follow and initiate research in the blossoming fields of information physics,
quantum information, and quantum computation.
Prerequisites: (PH2101 and MH1402) OR (PH2101 and MH2802) OR (CZ1016 and MH2802) OR (CY1602 and CY1307) 
PH3405 Superconductivity, Superfluidity and BoseEinstein Condensates
3 AU  Currently not offered 
Macroscopic quantum phenomena: superconductivity, superfluidity, and BoseEinstein condensates.
 Superconductivity – Drude theory of conduction in normal metals; superconductor properties; the Meissner effect; perfect diamagnetism; type I and type II superconductors; the London equation; GinzburgLandau theory; the superconducting phase transition; gauge symmetries and spontaneous symmetry breaking; the Abrikosov flux lattice; macroscopic coherent states; field operators; offdiagonal longrange order; the Josephson effect and its application in the Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID); introduction to the BCS theory.
 Superfluids – superfluid helium4; macroscopic wave functions, flow quantization; rotating superfluids and vortices; phonon and roton excitations; the TiszaLandau twofluid model; superfluid helium3; unconventional superconductivity.
 BoseEinstein condensation (BEC) – BoseEinstein statistics; BEC in ultracold atomic gases; the GrossPitaevskii equation.
Prerequisite: PH2101.

PH3501 Fluid Mechanics
4 AU  Semester 1 
The physics of the motion of fluids.
 Equations of flow.
 Compressible and incompressible fluids.
 Dynamical phenomena.
Prerequisite: PH2104.

PH3502 Chaotic Dynamical Systems
4 AU  Currently not offered 
This course aims to equip
you with the basic concepts of determinism and randomness in the physical world. You will develop a basic understanding of dynamical system theory which
is an essential component in physics, engineering, chemistry, biology, and also the social
sciences. You will also gain basic computational and analytical skills to solve and understand realworld
problems involving chaotic and nonlinear systems.
Prerequisite: PH2104.

PH3601 Fabrication of Micro and Nanoelectronic Devices
4 AU  Semester 1 
Principles and techniques for fabricating micro and nanoelectronic devices.
 Semiconductorbased device fabrication – ion implantation; diffusion and oxidation processes; epitaxy; thin film deposition; material and device characterization; lithography; etching and cleaning.
 Magnetic, organic and bioMEMS devices – fabrication and characterization techniques.
Prerequisite: PH2102

PH3602 Photonics
4 AU  Semester 1 
This course intends to
equip you with the fundamental concept and principles of key topics in
photonics. You will gain knowledge in the mechanisms of both optoelectronic systems and discrete
devices. Based on this knowledge, you will be able to make both predictions and interpretation
in important applications such as in optoelectronics and optical communications. In conclusion, after
taking this course, your problemsolving skills will be sharpened and you will have the necessary
foundation to tackle problems in Photonics research.
Prerequisites: PH2101 and PH2301.

PH3603 Biophysics
3 AU  Semester 2 
This course serves as an
introduction to “How physics approaches living matter”. It aims to provide a framework for understanding biophysics and physical models of biological
systems. You will build foundational knowledge in key topics of molecular biophysics and structural
biology. Through this course, you will be introduced to the working principles of common biophysical
methods used to investigate the structure and dynamics of biomolecules as well as novel methods
for manipulation and analysis in biophysics.
Prerequisite: PH2103.
