Undergraduates

Course Information

Physics and Applied Physics Courses


Year 1 — Year 3 Courses

Course Contents
PH1104
Mechanics


3 AU | Semester 1
This course aims to equip you with the basic concepts and problem solving skills in Mechanics. You will develop physical intuition and analytical skills which are important for studying physical systems and solve problems involving mechanical systems. These knowledge and skills lay the foundation for subsequent higher level courses

Prerequisite: Physics and Maths at A or H2 level, or equivalents.
Not available to students who have taken or are taking PH1011, PH1012, PH1801, or CY1308.
PH1105
Optics, Vibrations and Waves


3 AU | Semester 1
This course aims to equip you with basic concepts and problem solving skills in optics and wave phenomena. You will develop physical intuition and basic analytical skills which are important for studying optical rays and wave propagation. Fundamental concepts are emphasized using the framework of phase and wavefronts. These knowledge and skills lay the foundation for subsequent higher level courses in optics, and are also critical in any other wave-related courses such as quantum mechanics and electrodynamics.

​Prerequisite: Physics and Maths at A or H2 level, or equivalents.
Not available to students who have taken/are taking EE1002.
PH1106
Electricity and Magnetism


3 AU | Semester 2​
The course aims to guide you towards a basic understanding of the key ideas within fields and oscillations through the various concepts in electrostatics, magnetism, simple harmonic motion and electric circuits. Through problem solving, you would develop the physical intuition and analytical skills useful in these Physics topics. You would also learn to apply these theoretical concepts in real world situations.

Prerequisite: Physics and Maths at A or H2 level, or equivalents.
Not available to students who have taken/are taking PH1011, PH1012, PH1802, EE1002, PHYS1B, CY1302, or CY1306.
PH1107
Relativity and Quantum Physics​


3 AU | Semester 2
This course aims to equip you with the basic concepts and problem solving skills for analysing objects moving close to the speed of light and particles exhibiting quantum behaviour. You will develop physical insights and analytical skills which are important for studying relativistic problems and quantum systems. These knowledge and skills lay the foundation for subsequent higher level courses.

Prerequisite: Physics and Maths at A or H2 level, or equivalents.
Not available to students who have taken/are taking CY1307.
PH1198
Physics Laboratory Ia


2 AU | Semester 1
Basic experimental physics, including topics in mechanics, basic optics and thermal physics. The laboratory sessions are designed to provide an active learning experience where key physics concepts can be better appreciated. Students will also learn about data acquisition, error analysis, error distribution, and fitting procedures.

Prerequisite: Physics at A or H2 level or equivalent.
PH1199
Physics Laboratory Ib


2 AU | Semester 2
Basic experimental physics, including topics in electricity and magnetism, circuits, optics and wave phenomena. The laboratory sessions are designed to provide an active learning experience where key physics concepts can be better appreciated. Students will also learn about data acquisition, error analysis, error distribution, and fitting procedures.

Prerequisite: Physics at A or H2 level or equivalent.
PH2101
Quantum Mechanics I


3 AU | Semester 2
The overarching aim of the course is to enable you to predict outcomes of simple quantum experiments and to provide working knowledge necessary for more advanced topics in quantum physics. We will gradually develop formalism of quantum mechanics in terms of matrices and wave functions. Many experiments fundamental to physics will be discussed on the way as well as real-life applications. 

Prerequisites: (MH1801 and PH1107) OR (MH1801 and CY1307) OR (MH1802 and MH1803 and PH1107) OR (CY1307 and CY1601 and CY1602) OR (MH1101​and MH1200 and PH1107)​.
Not available to students who have taken/are taking CY1303.
PH2102
Electromagnetism​​


4 AU | Semester 2
By the end of the course, the students will be able to understand the fundamental principles of electromagnetism. Through tutorials, students will learn the relevant analytical, computational and mathematical skills such as partial differential equations and the physical concepts behind the equations/solutions. These skills and concepts are the essential for the advanced courses such as electrodynamics and fluid mechanics.

Prerequisites: (MH1801 and MH2800 and PH1106) OR (MH1802 and MH1803 and MH2802 and PH1106) OR (CY1601 and CY1602 and CY1308) 
OR (MH1101​and MH1200 and PH1106)​.​
PH2103
Thermal Physics


4 AU | Semester 1

The course aims to equip you with the basic concepts in Thermal Physics.  You will develop physical intuition and analytical skills which are important for studying physical systems and solve problems involving temperature, heat and energy. These knowledge and skills are at the basis of subsequent higher-level courses and are critical in the engineering profession. ​

Prerequisites: (MH2800 and PH1104) OR (MH1803 and MH2802 and PH1104) OR (CY1601 and CY1602 and CY1308) OR (MH1101​and MH1200)​.​
PH2104
Analytical Mechanics


4 AU | Semester 1
This course aims to equip you with the basic concepts and problem solving skills in Analytical Mechanics. You will develop physical intuition and analytical skills which are important for studying physical systems and solve problems involving mechanical systems. This knowledge and skills lay the foundation for other physics courses such as quantum mechanics and photonics. 

Prerequisites: (MH2800 and PH1104) OR (MH1803 and MH2802 and PH1104) OR (CY1601 and CY1602 and CY1308)
Not available to students who have taken/are taking MA1001.
PH2198
Physics Laboratory IIa


2 AU | Semester 1

This course aims to:

a. build understanding of experimentation in key topics of physics.

b. provide foundation knowledge for experimental physics

c. begin building observational skills of physical phenomena.

d. show how experiments further knowledge in physics.​


Prerequisite: PH1198 or CY1400.
PH2199
Physics Laboratory IIb


2 AU | Semester 2

This course aims to:

a. build understanding of experimentation in key topics of physics.

b. provide foundation knowledge for experimental physics

c. begin building observational skills of physical phenomena.

d. show how experiments further knowledge in physics.​


Prerequisite: PH1199 or CY1400.
PH2301
Physical Optics


3 AU | Semester 2
This course aims to equip you with the basic concepts and problem solving skills in physical optics and electromagnetic wave phenomena. You will develop physical intuition and analytical skills which are important for studying the detailed nature and propagation of light wave, its polarization, interference and diffraction properties. You will solve problems based on electromagnetic theory of light, superposition of light waves, polarization, interference and diffraction. These knowledge and skills lay the foundation for subsequent higher level courses in photonics and applied physics which would also be very useful in the engineering and design profession. 

Prerequisite: PH1105
PH2601
Introduction to Lasers


3 AU | Semester 2
Introduction to lasers and their working principles.
  1. Stimulated emission of radiation – quantum transitions in atoms; stimulated emission and amplification; rate equations; saturation.
  2. Laser oscillation – feedback mechanisms; coherent optical oscillations; laser resonators; design principles for laser devices.
Prerequisite: PH1105.
PH3101
Quantum Mechanics II


4 AU | Semester 1
Most introductory courses or books in QM start off with special systems (for example infinite square well) and derive its wave function in position representation from the Schrodinger’s equation. Although this approach may be intuitive due to its physical setup, it tends to give the wrong impression that wave functions are fundamental objects in QM. In actual fact, wave functions are just the different representations of the state (ket in Dirac notation) of the system. One can always choose other representations or even not choose a representation.

This course aims to unteach wave mechanics and free you of particular representations and work with the formalism directly. You will explore the logical development of Quantum Mechanics (QM) formalism and develop QM systematically from finite to infinite dimensions in three parts.

Part 1 aims to give a complete and systematic run-down of basic quantum kinematics and quantum dynamics so that you have a working understanding of quantum mechanics for finite-dimensional and infinite dimensional systems. The concept of measurement will also be covered. This provides probabilistic results for experiments.

Part 2 aims to discuss symmetry within QM. Rotational symmetry (angular momentum is the generator of rotations) is the main and very important example. The rotational symmetry in Hydrogenic atoms will also be discussed, which will also introduce you to 3D QM.

Part 3 adds on to the formalism for systems that cannot be solved exactly. These are real-life QM examples and the standard method to solve these systems is via perturbation for time-independent/dependent and non-degenerate/degenerate systems. 

Prerequisites: PH2101 and MH2801.
PH3102
Condensed Matter Physics I


4 AU | Semester 1
The structure of solids, and the quantum mechanical motion of atoms and electrons in a periodic solid.
  1. Crystal symmetry – lattice, basis, unit cell of a crystal; Miller indices; lattice planes and spacings; the reciprocal lattice and Brillouin zones; Bragg and Laue diffraction; structure factor; atomic form factor; neutron and x-ray diffraction; powder and single crystal diffraction.
  2. Sound propagation in solids – normal mode dispersion for linear atomic chains; acoustic and optical phonon modes; Born von Karman boundary conditions; density of states; lattice quantization and phonons; Einstein and Debye models of heat capacity.
  3. Electronic properties – free electron theory; density of states; the Fermi energy; Fermi surfaces; conductivity and heat capacity; the nearly-free electron model; band gaps; the Bloch theorem; the Kronig-Penny model.
  4. Distinctions between metals, semiconductors and insulators; aspects of condensed matter physics.

Prerequisites: PH1105, PH2101, and PH2103.
PH3199
Physics Laboratory IIIa


2 AU | Semester 1 & 2
Advanced training in experimental physics covering a wide variety of topics: quantum physics, electrodynamics, atomic physics and spectroscopy, solid state physics, fluid mechanics, semiconductor physics, photonics, biophysics and thin film growth.

Prerequisites: PH2198 and PH2199.
PH3201
Statistical Mechanics


4 AU | Semester 2
Postulates and key ideas in statistical mechanics, with applications to classical and quantum gases.
  1. Basic postulates of statistical mechanics – macrostates and microstates; distinguishable and indistinguishable particles; distribution functions.
  2. Temperature and entropy – state probabilities; the Boltzmann relation; the canonical ensemble; the partition function; Gibbs' entropy formula; the Third Law of thermodynamics; information theory; irreversible processes and the arrow of time.
  3. Density of states and heat capacity in black body radiation.
  4. Ideal classical gases – the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution; rotational and vibrational heat.
  5. Free electron gases – the Fermi energy and distribution function; Pauli paramagnetism; electronic contributions to heat capacity.
  6. Phonons – phonon contributions to heat capacity; the Debye approximation; the phonon gas; thermal conductivity of insulators.
  7. Phase transitions – the Weiss model of ferromagnetism; order-disorder transitions.

Prerequisite: PH3101.
PH3399
Physics Laboratory IIIb


2 AU | Semester 1 & 2
Advanced training in experimental physics covering a wide variety of topics: Quantum physics, electrodynamics, atomic physics and spectroscopy, solid state physics, fluid mechanics, semiconductor physics, photonics, biophysics and thin film growth.

Prerequisite: PH2198 and PH2199.
PH3401
Atomic Physics​


4 AU | Semester 2
Atomic physics is fundamentally important in physics. It is a direct application of the quantum mechanical framework. It extends the understanding quantum mechanics and underlines its importance. Atomic physics introduces the fundamental concepts which are also applicable in condensed matter / nuclear / molecular physics. 

Prerequisite: PH3101.
PH3403
Cosmology


3 AU | Semester 1
This is a first course in cosmology which covers various fundamental aspects of standard cosmology and background tools to understand some active research topics in this area. The topics to be covered include inflation theory, structure formation, cosmic microwave background and gravitational waves. We will also discuss some aspects of geometry of the universe including the Robertson-Walker metrics and Friedmann equations. The course will conclude via touching on currently open problems in cosmology such as dark matter, dark energy and primordial gravitational waves. ​

​Prerequisites: PH1107, PH2101, and PH2103.
PH3404
Physics of Classical and Quantum Information


3 AU | Semester 1
This interdisciplinary course aims to arm you with the knowledge required to appreciate rapidly growing cross-disciplinary research frontiers that interface physics, information science and computation. You will be introduced to the fundamentals of classical and quantum information science and their underlying physical principles, which will give you the necessary expertise to follow and initiate research in the blossoming fields of information physics, quantum information, and quantum computation.

Prerequisites: (PH2101 and MH1402) OR 
(PH2101 and MH2802)​ OR (CZ1016 and MH2802) OR (CY1602 and CY1307)
PH3405
Superconductivity, Superfluidity and Bose-Einstein Condensates


3 AU | Currently not offered
Macroscopic quantum phenomena: superconductivity, superfluidity, and Bose-Einstein condensates.
  1. Superconductivity – Drude theory of conduction in normal metals; superconductor properties; the Meissner effect; perfect diamagnetism; type I and type II superconductors; the London equation; Ginzburg-Landau theory; the superconducting phase transition; gauge symmetries and spontaneous symmetry breaking; the Abrikosov flux lattice; macroscopic coherent states; field operators; off-diagonal long-range order; the Josephson effect and its application in the Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID); introduction to the BCS theory.
  2. Superfluids – superfluid helium-4; macroscopic wave functions, flow quantization; rotating superfluids and vortices; phonon and roton excitations; the Tisza-Landau two-fluid model; superfluid helium-3; unconventional superconductivity.
  3. Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) – Bose-Einstein statistics; BEC in ultra-cold atomic gases; the Gross-Pitaevskii equation.

Prerequisite: PH2101.
PH3501
Fluid Mechanics


4 AU | Semester 1
The physics of the motion of fluids.
  1. Equations of flow.
  2. Compressible and incompressible fluids.
  3. Dynamical phenomena.

Prerequisite: PH2104.
PH3502
Chaotic Dynamical Systems


4 AU | Currently not offered
This course aims to equip you with the basic concepts of determinism and randomness in the physical world. You will develop a basic understanding of dynamical system theory which is an essential component in physics, engineering, chemistry, biology, and also the social sciences. You will also gain basic computational and analytical skills to solve and understand real-world problems involving chaotic and non-linear systems. 

Prerequisite: PH2104.
PH3601
Fabrication of Micro- and Nanoelectronic Devices


4 AU | Semester 1
Principles and techniques for fabricating micro- and nano-electronic devices.
  1. Semiconductor-based device fabrication – ion implantation; diffusion and oxidation processes; epitaxy; thin film deposition; material and device characterization; lithography; etching and cleaning.
  2. Magnetic, organic and bioMEMS devices – fabrication and characterization techniques.

Prerequisite: PH2102
PH3602
Photonics​


4 AU | Semester 1
This course intends to equip you with the fundamental concept and principles of key topics in photonics. You will gain knowledge in the mechanisms of both optoelectronic systems and discrete devices. Based on this knowledge, you will be able to make both predictions and interpretation in important applications such as in optoelectronics and optical communications. In conclusion, after taking this course, your problem-solving skills will be sharpened and you will have the necessary foundation to tackle problems in Photonics research. 

Prerequisites: PH2101 and PH2301.
PH3603
Biophysics


3 AU | Semester 2
This course serves as an introduction to “How physics approaches living matter”. It aims to provide a framework for understanding biophysics and physical models of biological systems. You will build foundational knowledge in key topics of molecular biophysics and structural biology. Through this course, you will be introduced to the working principles of common biophysical methods used to investigate the structure and dynamics of biomolecules as well as novel methods for manipulation and analysis in biophysics. 

Prerequisite: PH2103.

Year 4 Courses

Course Contents
PH4401
Quantum Mechanics III


4 AU | Semester 2 | Yearly
The course aims to provide you with an understanding of advanced concepts in quantum mechanics, with a focus on the quantum mechanical behavior of multi-particle systems. You will learn how to quantitatively describe the scattering of quantum mechanical particles, the inherently non-classical entanglement between quantum mechanical particles, and the creation and annihlation of particles such as photons. The analytical and numerical methods taught in this course provide the theoretical background for advanced courses in quantum field theory, high energy physics, and condensed matter physics. 

Prerequisite: PH3101.
PH4402
Condensed Matter Physics II


4 AU | Semester 1 | Even Years
Advanced concepts in solid state physics.
  1. Basic theories and models for condensed-matter physics – approaches to the many-body problem; collective phenomena.
  2. Structure and bonding - order and disorder; types of bonding and structure; electrons in periodic potentials; the Bloch theorem; tight-binding models; 1D chain models; band structures of real materials; optical transitions and photoemission.
  3. Interactions – effective medium approximations for electron-electron interactions; Hartree-Fock theory; exchange and correlation energy; electron fluids and electrostatic screening; the exclusion principle and quasiparticles.
  4. Transport and scattering – crystal momentum; neutron scattering; electron-phonon scattering; optical conductivity; Drude theory, plasmons; transport in electric and magnetic fields; quantization of orbits, cyclotron resonance; the de Haas-van Alphen effect; Fermi surfaces; magnetoresistance oscillation; the quantum Hall effect.
  5. Semiconductors – thermal equilibrium of quasiparticles; field effect transistor; p-n junctions, LED; excitons; semiconductor heterostrutures; quantum wells; semiconductor lasers.
  6. Magnetism – origin of magnetic moments and interactions; ferromagnetism; itinerant magnetism; the Stoner model; strongly interacting systems; Mott insulators.

Prerequisite: PH3201 and PH3102.
PH4403
Surfaces and Interfaces


4 AU | Semester 1 | Yearly
Key concepts in surface and interface science, with a focus on electronic structures.
  1. Thermodynamics of surface phenomena – electronic structures; phase transitions; elementary excitations; physisorption and chemisorption; energy transfer.
  2. Schottky barrier and band offsets in semiconductors; band engineering.
  3. Analytical techniques – scanning tunneling microscopy; electron diffraction methods; photoemission; ballistic electron emission microscopy.

Prerequisite: PH3102.
PH4404
Nanoscale Physics​


3 AU | Semester 2 | Yearly
This course is targeted at physics students in their fourth year. It aims at introducing how quantum mechanical behavior emerges in condensed matter systems at the nanometer scale, and how quantum mechanical laws govern their properties. The course will provide an overview of physical phenomena that are observed experimentally, introduce their underlying physical principles, and aims to build the analytical skills to describe these phenomena mathematically.This course thus will equip you with the relevant concepts of modern nanoscience and technology that will prepare you to follow or initiate research in field or to work in industry jobs related to applied nanoscience and technology. 

Prerequisite: PH3101 and PH3102.
PH4408
Nuclear Physics


3 AU | Semester 1 | Yearly
The structure of nuclei and their properties.
  1. Properties of nuclei – nuclear radii, masses, and abundances; binding energies; spins and electromagnetic moments.
  2. Nuclear structure – deuterons; nucleon-nucleon scattering and exchange forces; the semi-empirical mass formula; the Fermi gas model; the shell model; liquid drop models with vibrational and rotational excitations; collective structure.
  3. Selection rules for alpha, beta and gamma decay processes.
  4. Nuclear lifetimes; applications of nuclear physics including fusion and fission processes.
  5. Nuclear reactors and nuclear power – neutron difussion and moderation; radiation protection and radiation shielding; safety and the environment.

Prerequisite: PH3101
PH4409
Quantum Electronics


4 AU | Semester 2 | Odd Years
Advanced topics in photonics and optical technology.
  1. Classical linear and nonlinear optics; statistical optics.
  2. Quantum optics – physics of photoncs; semiclassical and quantum models of light-matter interaction; lasers; generation of short laser pulses.

Prerequisites: PH3101 and PH3602.
PH4410
Econophysics


3 AU | Currently not offered
Approaches to economics and finance inspired by statistical physics.
  1. Introductory concepts – basic concepts in probability and statistics; low- and high-frequency data in economics and finance; Gaussian and fat-tailed return distributions.
  2. Time series – autocorrelations, memory, and nonstationarity; cross correlations in financial markets; time series clustering.
  3. Random matrix theory.
  4. Correlation filtering and minimal spanning trees.
  5. Agent-based models of financial markets.

Prerequisite: PH3201 or MH2500.
PH4411
Introduction to Experimental Particle Physics


3 AU | Semester 1 | Yearly
Survey of particle physics for advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students.
  1. Common models of nuclear and high energy particle physics – the Standard Model of quarks, leptons and the fundamental interactions; tests of conservation laws; indications of physics beyond the Standard Model.
  2. Experimental techniques in particle physics – operating principles of particle accelerators and particle detectors; accelerators; transverse and longitudinal beam dynamics; RF and plasma acceleration; electron dynamics and synchrotron radiation; detector types, including sensitivity, response, energy/space/time resolution, efficiency and dead time; covering devices for position and momentum measurements; particle identification systems; calorimeters and multipurpose systems.
  3. Current and future experimental challenges – data volume and computing problems; online collision selection; data analysis.

Prerequisite: division approval.
PH4414
Introduction to Spintronics


4 AU | Semester 2 | Even Years
This course aims to introduce magnetics and spintronics technologies, which are useful in hard disk drives and the emerging field of magnetic random access memories. The course has three parts. The first part provides the fundamentals of magnetism. The second part discusses the basics and recent developments of magnetic recording. The third part discusses the basics and recent developments of spintronics, including magnetic random access memory. The course is suitable for
students of Physics, Materials Science and Electrical Engineering (Microelectronics). The course equips you with relevant skills to enable you to find jobs in the electronics industry. 

Prerequisites: PH2102 and PH3102.
PH4418
Physics in the Industry​


4 AU | Semester 2 | Yearly
This course aims to introduce you to a broad range of physics-related industries. On completion of the course, you will appreciate how physics is being applied to a wide range of industries and can make a more informed decision on the industries that better suit your career interests.

Prerequisites: PH3101 and PH3102.
PH4419
Computational Physics


4 AU | Semester 2 | Yearly
​This course aims to provide you with the quantitative skills needed to study complex physical situations, such as multi-dimensional systems, nonlinear phenomena, and stochastic phenomena. Emphasis is placed on practical analysis, problem-solving, and debugging skills. These skills are developed through programming assignments, in which you will learn how to tackle a variety of physics problems in electromagnetism, quantum mechanics, and statistical mechanics.

Prerequisite: PH3101.
PH4501
Statistical Mechanics II


4 AU | Semester 1 | Odd Years
Advanced statistical mechanics and its applications to complex physical systems.
  1. Thermodynamic systems in equilibrium – Boltzmann and Gibbs entropy; configurational entropy and defects; mcrocanonical, canonical and grand canonical ensembles; paramagnetic salts; negative temperatures; fluctuations in energy, particle number and volume; critical opalescence.
  2. Classical and quantum models – indistinguishability; the equipartition theorem; the grand partition function; Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics; the quantum to classical crossover; chemical equilibrium and Langmuir isotherms.
  3. Quantum fluids – the Ideal Bose gas and Bose-Einstein condensation; quantum liquids; black-body radiation; phonons and the Debye model; ideal Fermi gases; normal modes and elementary excitations of quantum fluids.
  4. Classical liquids – radial distribution function; internal energy and equation of state; virial expansion.

Prerequisites: PH3101 and PH3201.
PH4506
Electrodynamics​


4 AU | Semester 1 | Odd Years
This course aims to equip you with the knowledge to explain the dynamics of EM fields (hence called Electrodynamics), conclude the language of vector calculus and introduce the language of Lorentz covariant tensor calculus in Electrodynamics and elevate Electrodynamics to the level of variational principle known as “Classical Abelian Gauge Field Theory”. ​

Prerequisite: PH2102.
PH4507
Topics in Physics


3 AU | Currently not offered
This course aims to expose you to the latest research topics in theoretical physics. Faculty who are involved in the theoretical physics research will lead this course to provide you with opportunities to learn about their research and perhaps to join their research groups. For those of you who already have the pre-requisite knowledge, you may even start on the research during the course. Through this course, you will become up-to-date in your knowledge and skills in theoretical physics.

Prerequisite: division approval.
PH4508
Introduction to General Relativity


3 AU | Semester 2 | Even Years

Einstein’s general theory of relativity is the accepted classical theory of gravity. This course aims to introduce to you the essentials of general relativity: its basics concepts, mathematical formulation and observational consequences. Upon completing the course, you will be able to develop an understanding of the geometrical structure and physical implications of this theory. The geometrical framework of general relativity and analytical tools that you will learn in this course will be of wide use across subjects in theoretical physics and some branches of mathematics as well. 


Prerequisite: PH2102 and PH2104.
PH4509
Quantum Field Theory with applications in Condensed Matter Physics


4 AU | Semester 2 | Even Years
The course is intended to be a first course in QFT, in which you should, upon completion, gain mastery of essential ideas in field theory and broadly appreciate how they relate to the deep aspects of fundamental physics. The course will enable you to develop an awareness of the plethora of applications ranging from particle theory to many-body problems in condensed matter physics. In the process, you will appreciate the universality of QFT and how it provides a fine example of the interdisciplinary nature of physics. The concrete examples invoked in particle physics and condensed
matter applications will enable you to learn how abstract principles in the study of physics are intimately related to concrete physical observables. It will be a course where you learn to navigate through mathematical methods in your own stride without losing sight of the underlying physical narrative. It should very much widen your technical repertoire and deepen the maturity of your physical intuitions.

Prerequisite: PH3101.
PH4510
Topics in Physics II


3 AU | Currently not offered
This course aims to expose you to the latest research topics in theoretical physics. Faculty who are involved in the theoretical physics research will lead this course to provide you with opportunities to learn about their research and perhaps to join their research groups. For those of you who already have the pre-requisite knowledge, you may even start on the research during the course.Through this course, you will become up-to-date in your knowledge and skills in theoretical physics.

Prerequisite: division approval.​
PH4601
Physics of Semiconductor and Spintronics Devices


4 AU | Semester 2 | Odd Years
Introduction to solid state devices, with an emphasis on the modern microelectronics industry.
  1. Semiconductor physics – electronic band structures of semiconductors; electronic properties of defects; charge carrier concentrations; drift of carriers in electric and magnetic fields; diffusion and recombination of excess carriers; p-n junction physics; junction diodes; tunnel diodes; bipolar junction transistors; metal-semiconductor contacts; metal-insulator-semiconductor interfaces; MOSFET and advanced FinFET.
  2. Magnetic materials and devices – origins of magnetism; ferromagnetism; magnetisation-reversal processes; magnetic domain walls; soft and hard magnetic materials; giant magnetoresistance; tunnelling magnetoresistance; magnetic random access memory (MRAM); magnetic recording media.

Prerequisite: PH3102.
PH4603
Soft Condensed Matter Physics


3 AU | Semester 2 | Yearly
This course aims to equip you with the key concepts and problem solving skills to the physics of soft matter, such as colloids, foams, granular media and liquid crystals. You will be exposed to the theory and experimental methods used in the development and study of soft matter.

Prerequisite: PH2103.
PH4604
Topics in Applied Physics


3 AU | Currently not offered
This course aims to expose you to the latest research topics in applied physics. Faculty who areinvolved in applied physics research will lead this course to provide you with opportunities to learn about their research and perhaps to join their research groups. For those of you who already have the pre-requisite knowledge, you may even start on the research during the course. Through this course, you will become up-to-date in your knowledge and skills in applied physics.

Prerequisite: division approval.
PH4605
Medical Physics for Radiotherapy


4 AU | Semester 2 | Yearly
Fundamentals of radiation physics, with a focus on clinical applications.
  1. Dosimetry – basic concepts and techniques; dose calculation methods; treatment planning.
  2. Radiobiology and radiotherapy; radiation safety.

Prerequisite: PH3101
PH4606
Fundamentals and Applications of Acoustics


3 AU | Semester 1 | Even Years
Introduction to acoustics, with a focus on audible and ultrasonic sound propagation in fluids, as well as ultrasonic applications for medical diagnosis and treatment.
  1. The wave equation; reflection processes; equivalent network modes; pistons; the Rayleigh integral.
  2. Solutions to the wave equation – sound speed profiles; 2D parabolic wave equation; underwater acoustic modelling; sound propagation in the ocean.
  3. Sonar equations – reflection, scattering, and backscattering processes; sonar systems and their applications in target detection and ranging.
  4. Bioacoustics – sound generation and sound perception in human beings; frequency resolution of the cochlea; sound propagation; transmission losses; sound exposure levels and impacts on marine environments; technological applications.
  5. Medical ultrasound – introduction to diagnostic ultrasound; sound emission from bubbles; therapeutic ultrasound.

Prerequisites: PH1104, PH1105, and MH2801.
PH4607/CM4017
Biomedical Imaging and Sensing


3 AU | Semester 1 | Yearly
This course aims to develop a basic understanding of core physics, chemistry, engineering and related concepts behind the cutting edge biosensing and bioimaging techniques. Further, you will be able to apply the basic knowledge of physics to understand the instrumentation of these biosensing and imaging modalities.

Through this course, you will learn the fundamental theoretical background of these techniques. As a result, you will understand how these techniques are applied to current common medical problems, which may eventually open up new doorsto enormous possibilities in biomedical research and related industries that you may undertake in future.

Prerequisite: PH2301 or CM3041.
PH4608
Plasmonics and Metamaterials


3 AU | Semester 2 | Odd Years
The course will be interdisciplinary in nature where the students would expand their knowledge base in the areas of nanophotonics, solid state physics, and spectroscopy. The aim would be focused at delivering the current state of the art research topic in the field of plasmonics and metamaterials. This course would encourage undergraduate students to apply their fundamental knowledge of optics and solid state physics into new area of nanophotonics.

Prerequisite: PH2102.
PH4609
Topics in Applied Physics II


3 AU | Currently not offered
This course aims to expose you to the latest research topics in applied physics. Faculty who are involved in applied physics research will lead this course to provide you with opportunities to learn about their research and perhaps to join their research groups. For those of you who already have the pre-requisite knowledge, you may even start on the research during the course. Through this course, you will become up-to-date in your knowledge and skills in applied physics.

Prerequisite: division approval.

FYP/Attachment/Internship Courses

The following modules are available for students admitted in 2016 or later, for the completion of their Final Year Project and internship/attachment degree requirements.

Course Contents
PH4415
Final Year Project


11 AU
For students admitted 2016-2018
Two-semester research project, supervised by a faculty member, culminating in a thesis report and a seminar presentation.
Click here for more information.

Prerequisites: 12 AU of PH3XXX courses.
Not available to students who have taken/are taking the 22-week internship (PH4417).
For students admitted 2019 or later, the Final Year Project is PH4421.
PH4416
Professional Attachment


5 AU | Pass/Fail
For students admitted 2016 and after
Ten-week attachment in an approved company or institution.
Click here for more information.

Prerequisites: PH1104, PH1105, PH1106, PH1107, PH1198, PH1199, PH2101, PH2102, PH2103, PH2104, PH2198, and PH2199; or by permission.
Not available to students who have taken/are taking PH4417 or other internship modules.
PH4417
Professional Internship


11 AU | Pass/Fail
For students admitted 2016 and after
Twenty-two week internship in an approved company or institution.
Click here for more information.

Prerequisites: PH1104, PH1105, PH1106, PH1107, PH1198, PH1199, PH2101, PH2102, PH2103, PH2104, PH2198, PH2199, PH3101, and PH3102; or by permission.
Not available to students who have taken/are taking PH4416 or other internship modules, or the Final Year Project (PH4415 or PH4421).
PH4421
Final Year Project


10 AU
For students admitted 2019 and after
PH4421 Final Year Project aims to allow you to gain insights into the breadth and diversity of research work in Physics. You will learn to critically review scientific literature, systematically collect data, and logically analyze results in a selected specialized area of study. You will also develop and polish your oral and written communication skills. After going through the rigorous research process, you will be well-prepared for higher degree studies (M.Sc / Ph.D), or technically demanding and investigative work in the industries.
Click here for more information.

Prerequisites: 12 AUs of PH3XXX courses.
Not available to students who have taken/are taking PH4417 or other internship module, or the Final Year Project (PH4415 or PH4421), or PH4701, OEP12, PH4702 OEP12, PH4703 OEP6, PH4704 OEP6, PH4900, or PH4901.

Legacy FYP/Attachment/Internship Courses

The following modules are only available for students admitted in 2015 or earlier, for the completion of their Final Year Project and internship/attachment degree requirements.

Course Contents
PH4405
Final Year Project


10 AU
For students admitted 2015 or earlier
Two-semester research project, supervised by a faculty member, culminating in a thesis report and a seminar presentation.

Not available to students admitted AY16/17 or later.
PH4412
Professional Attachment


4 AU | Pass/Fail
For students admitted 2015
Ten-week attachment in an approved company or institution.

Not available to students admitted AY16/17 or later.
PH4413
Professional Internship


10 AU | Pass/Fail
For students admitted 2015
Twenty-two week internship in an approved company or institution.

Not available to students admitted AY16/17 or later.

Physics Courses For Non-Physics Majors

Course Contents
PH1011
Physics


3 AU | Semester 1 & 2
This course aims to equip you with the basic concepts and problem solving skills in Mechanics, Thermal Physics and Electricity & Magnetism. You will develop physical intuition and analytical skills which are important for studying physical systems and solve problems involving the above three areas of Physics. These knowledge and skills lay the foundation for subsequent higher level courses and are also critical in the engineering profession. 

Prerequisite: Physics at A or H2 level, or equivalent.
Not available to students who have taken/are taking CY1305, CY1306, FE1001, FE1011, IM1091, MS1001, PH1012, PH1104, PH1106, or PH116S.
This course is also offered as a GER-PE (STS).
PH1012
Physics A


4 AU | Semester 1 & 2
This course aims to equip you with the basic concepts and problem solving skills in Mechanics,Thermal Physics and Electricity & Magnetism. You will develop physical intuition and analytical skills which are important for studying physical systems and solve problems involving the above three areas of Physics. These knowledge and skills lay the foundation for subsequent higher level courses and are also critical in the engineering profession. 

Not available to students who have taken/are taking CY1305, CY1306, FE1001, FE1011, FE1012, IM1090, PH1011, PH1104, PH1106, PH116S, AERO(2004-2011), CEE(2004-2011), or ENE(2004-2011).

This course is also offered as a GER-PE (STS).
PH1801
Foundations of Physics I


3 AU | Pass/Fail | Semester 1
Fundamentals of physics, with an emphasis on practical applications in engineering, the biomedical sciences, and other fields. Students also learn how to read scientific material effectively, identify fundamental concepts, reason through scientific questions, and solve quantitative problems.
  1. Mechanics
  2. Wave motion
  3. Thermodynamics

Prerequisite: mathematics at the A or H2 level, or equivalent.
Not available to students who have taken/are taking PH1104.
For CBC students, this course may be replaced with PH1104.
PH1802
Foundations of Physics II


3 AU | Pass/Fail | Semester 2
Fundamentals of physics, with an emphasis on practical applications in engineering, the biomedical sciences, and other fields.
  1. Electricity and magnetism.
  2. Optics.
  3. Modern physics.

Prerequisite: PH1801.
Not available to students who have taken/are taking PH1106. For CBC students, this course may be replaced with PH1106.

Unrestricted Electives

Course Contents
PH2901
Electronics for the Experimentalist


3 AU | Semester 2
This course introduces basic concepts and applications of electronic elements and circuits. Elements in analog and digital electronics will be discussed. Tools for circuit design and board layout will be introduced. Additionally an overview of typical circuits for scientific instrumentation for data acquisition and signal processing will be given. The lab sessions are an integral part in this course and focus on hands-on experiments with the goal to realize prototypes of given circuits. During your project work, you have to design and realize an electronic device capable of managing a given tasks. By doing this project work, you will gain experience in actual electronics
construction and can apply this experience to your scientific environment.

PH2999
Undergraduate Research Experience in Physics I


3 AU | Pass/Fail | Semester 1 & 2
Introduction to physics research, supervised by a faculty member. Suitable for undergradautes from year 2 onwards. Research topics are determined by the faculty supervisors.

Prerequisite: division approval.
PH3999
Undergraduate Research Experience in Physics II

3 AU | Semester 1 & 2
Introduction to physics research, supervised by a faculty member. Suitable for undergradautes from year 3 onwards. Research topics are determined by the faculty supervisors.

Prerequisite: Division approval.
PS9886
Making and Tinkering Lite I


2 AU | Pass/Fail | Semester 2
The course aims to equip you with basic technological awareness, particularly computer- controlled electronics and 3D printing, and hands-on skills required for building basic equipment and products related to Science and Technology. Through this course, you will develop creativity as you are encouraged to explore different approaches to a given problem, and resilience when facing the need to acquire new technological skills in a limited time in order to solve a given problem.  

Click here for more information.

This course is also offered as Major Prescribed Elective for Applied Physics students.
​PS9887
Making and Tinkering Lite II


2 AU | Pass/Fail | Semester 2
The course aims to equip you with basic technological awareness, particularly computer simulation and basic prototyping using 3D printing, and other hands-on skills required for building basic equipment and products related to Science and Technology. Through this course, you will develop creativity as you are encouraged to explore different approaches to a given problem, and resilience when facing the need to acquire new technological skills in a limited time in order to solve a given problem. Finally, you will have the opportunity to share and refine your ideas with other makers
and tinkerers in this course. 
Click here for more information.

Prerequisite: School approval

This course also offered as a Major Prescribed Elective for Applied Physics students.
PS9888
Making and Tinkering


4 AU | Special Terms
This course aims to create an environment that allows students to apply their scientific knowledge to identify and solve open-ended real life problems together with their friends from different disciplines. You will have the opportunities to freely explore, take risks and even if you fail, you will be able to learn from your failures. The end-product of the investigation will be a (possibly novel) prototype designed and created by you and your team to solve the problem you identified. You will also be required to do presentations of your project. 

Click here for more information.

Prerequisite: School approval

Other Core Requirements for Physics Majors

Course Contents
MH1401
Algorithms and Computing I


2 AU | For physics students admitted AY17/8 or earlier
Fundamental concepts of programming. See the MAS course information page for details.
MH1402
Algorithms and Computing II


2 AU | For physics students admitted AY17/8 or earlier​
Introduction to computer algorithms. See the MAS course information page for details.
MH1802
Calculus for the Sciences


4 AU | Semester 1
Introduction to calculus and differential equations. See the MAS course information page for details.

For physics majors admitted AY17/18 or later.
MH1803
Calculus for Physics


 4 AU | Semester 2
Introduction to vector calculus and partial differential equations. See the MAS course information page for details.

For physics majors admitted AY17/18 or later.
MH2801
Complex Methods for the Sciences


3 AU | Semester 1
Introduction to complex methods, with an emphasis on physical applications. See the MAS course information page for details.
MH2802
Linear Algebra for Scientists


3 AU | Semester 2
Introduction to linear algebra, with an emphasis on physical applications. See the MAS course information page for details.

For physics students admitted AY17/18 or later.
MH1800
Calculus for the Sciences I


3 AU | For physics students admitted AY16/17 or earlier
Fundamental techniques of calculus. See the MAS course information page for details.
MH1801
Calculus for the Sciences II


3 AU | For physics students admitted AY16/17 or earlier
Fundamental techniques of calculus. See the MAS course information page for details.
MH2800
Linear Algebra and Multivariable Calculus


4 AU | For physics students admitted AY16/17 or earlier
Introduction to linear algebra and multivariable calculus. See the MAS course information page for details.
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